History of the Native American Mixed-Bloods in the United States

The history of Native American mixed-bloods in the United States is a complex and multifaceted story that has been shaped by various factors, including European colonization, government policy, and the reservation system. This section will provide an overview of the history of Native American mixed-bloods, including the impact of European colonization and government policy on their community.

Removal and Relocation

One of the significant events in the history of Native American mixed-bloods was the removal and relocation of Native American tribes. During the early 19th century, the United States government carried out a series of policies aimed at forcibly displacing Native American tribes from their ancestral homelands to designated reservations. This removal and relocation process had a profound impact on Native American tribes and mixed-blood communities.

Trail of Tears

One of the most infamous removal policies was the Trail of Tears, which involved the forced relocation of the Cherokee tribe from their homelands in the southeast to designated reservations in Oklahoma. The journey, which lasted several months, was marked by suffering, death, and the destruction of Native American culture. Thousands of Cherokees died along this treacherous trail, which was known as the "Trail of Tears."

Impact of Government Policy

Government policy also had a significant impact on Native American mixed-bloods. The Indian Reorganization Act (IRA), enacted in 1934, aimed to revitalize and strengthen Native American tribes. However, its effects were mixed, with some tribes seeing improvements in their social and economic conditions while others continue to struggle. The reservation system, which was created to confine Native American tribes to specific lands, also had significant implications for Native American mixed-bloods.

Reservation System

The reservation system, which was established in the aftermath of the Removal and Relocation policies, was designed to provide Native American tribes with designated lands and resources. While the reservation system had some benefits, it also came with significant challenges. Native American mixed-bloods often faced discrimination from within their own tribes, as they were seen as not fully Native American.


Another significant policy affecting Native American mixed-bloods was the Termination policy, enacted in the 1950s. This policy sought to end the federal relationship with Native American tribes and terminate their special status within the US government. The Termination policy had devastating consequences for Native American tribes and mixed-blood communities, leading to the loss of land, resources, and cultural identity.

Overall, the history of Native American mixed-bloods in the United States is marked by both resilience and adversity. The impact of European colonization, Removal and Relocation policies, the reservation system, and the Termination policy have all shaped their experiences. While there is still a long way to go, Native American mixed-blood communities continue to preserve their cultural heritage and fight for their rights and recognition.

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